Topology and Geometry in Polymer Science

Topology and Geometry in Polymer Science PDF Author: Stuart G. Whittington
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1461217121
Category : Mathematics
Languages : en
Pages : 206

Book Description
This IMA Volume in Mathematics and its Applications TOPOLOGY AND GEOMETRY IN POLYMER SCIENCE is based on the proceedings of a very successful one-week workshop with the same title. This workshop was an integral part of the 1995-1996 IMA program on "Mathematical Methods in Materials Science." We would like to thank Stuart G. Whittington, De Witt Sumners, and Timothy Lodge for their excellent work as organizers of the meeting and for editing the proceedings. We also take this opportunity to thank the National Science Foun dation (NSF), the Army Research Office (ARO) and the Office of Naval Research (ONR), whose financial support made the workshop possible. A vner Friedman Robert Gulliver v PREFACE This book is the product of a workshop on Topology and Geometry of Polymers, held at the IMA in June 1996. The workshop brought together topologists, combinatorialists, theoretical physicists and polymer scientists, who share an interest in characterizing and predicting the microscopic en tanglement properties of polymers, and their effect on macroscopic physical properties.

Topology of Polymers

Topology of Polymers PDF Author: Koya Shimokawa
Publisher: Springer Nature
ISBN: 4431568883
Category : Mathematics
Languages : en
Pages : 81

Book Description
Plastics, films, and synthetic fibers are among typical examples of polymer materials fabricated industrially in massive quantities as the basis of modern social life. By comparison, polymers from biological resources, including proteins, DNAs, and cotton fibers, are essential in various processes in living systems. Such polymers are molecular substances, constituted by the linking of hundreds to tens of thousands of small chemical unit (monomer) components. Thus, the form of polymer molecules is frequently expressed by line geometries, and their linear and non-linear forms are believed to constitute the fundamental basis for their properties and functions. In the field of polymer chemistry and polymer materials science, the choice of macromolecules has continuously been extended from linear or randomly branched forms toward a variety of precisely controlled topologies by the introduction of intriguing synthetic techniques. Moreover, during the first decade of this century, a number of impressive breakthroughs have been achieved to produce an important class of polymers having a variety of cyclic and multicyclic topologies. These developments now offer unique opportunities in polymer materials design to create unique properties and functions based on the form, i.e., topology, of polymer molecules. The introduction and application of topological geometry (soft geometry) to polymer molecules is a crucial requirement to account for the basic geometrical properties of polymer chains uniquely flexible in nature, in contrast to small chemical compounds conceived upon Euclidian geometry (hard geometry) principles. Topological geometry and graph theory are introduced for the systematic classification and notation of the non-linear constructions of polymer molecules, including not only branched but also single cyclic and multicyclic polymer topologies. On that basis, the geometrical–topological relationship between different polymers having distinctive constructions is discussed. A unique conception of topological isomerism is thus formed, which contrasts with that of conventional constitutional and stereoisomerism occurring in small chemical compounds. Through the close collaboration of topology experts Shimokawa and Ishihara and the polymer chemist Tezuka, this monograph covers the fundamentals and selected current topics of topology applied in polymers and topological polymer chemistry. In particular, the aim is to provide novel insights jointly revealed through a unique interaction between mathematics (topology) and polymer materials science.

New Trends in Geometry

New Trends in Geometry PDF Author: Claudio Bartocci
Publisher: World Scientific
ISBN: 1908977884
Category : Mathematics
Languages : en
Pages : 328

Book Description
This volume focuses on the interactions between mathematics, physics, biology and neuroscience by exploring new geometrical and topological modelling in these fields. Among the highlights are the central roles played by multilevel and scale-change approaches in these disciplines. The integration of mathematics with physics, as well as molecular and cell biology and the neurosciences, will constitute the new frontier of 21st century science, where breakthroughs are more likely to span across traditional disciplines. Contents:Geometry, Theoretical Physics and Cosmology:The Emergence of Algebraic Geometry in Contemporary Physics (Claudio Bartocci & Ugo Bruzzo)Quantum Gravity and Quantum Geometry (Mauro Carfora)The de Sitter and Anti-de Sitter Universes (Ugo Moschella)Geometry and Topology in Relativistic Cosmology (Jean-Pierre Luminet)The Problem of Space in Neurosciences:Space Coding in the Cerebral Cortex (Leonardo Fogassi)Action and Space Representation (Anna Berti & Alessia Folegatti)The Space Representations in the Brain (Claudio Brozzoli & Alessandro Farnè)The Enactive Constitution of Space (Carrado Sinigaglia & Chiara Brozzo)Geometrical Methods in the Biological Sciences:Causes and Symmetries in Natural Sciences: The Continuum and the Discrete in Mathematical Modelling (Francis Bailly & Giuseppe Longo)Topological Invariants of Geometrical Surfaces and the Protein Folding Problem (Riccardo Broglia)The Geometry of Dense Packing and Biological Structures (Jean-François Sadoc)When Topology and Biology Meet ‘For Life’: The Interactions Between Topological Forms and Biological Functions (Luciano Boi) Readership: Students and researchers in mathematical sciences at graduate level. Keywords:Geometrical Models;Spatial Perception;Mirror Neurons;Quantum Field Theory;String TheoryKey Features:Multidisciplinary approachDistinguished contributors working in different research areasNovel perspectives on the interactions between mathematics and biology

Physical Knots

Physical Knots PDF Author: David M Goldschmidt
Publisher: American Mathematical Soc.
ISBN: 082183200X
Category : Mathematics
Languages : en
Pages : 340

Book Description
Based on a Special Session at the AMS Sectional Meeting in Las Vegas (NV) in April 2001, this volume discusses critical questions and new ideas in the areas of knotting and folding of curves in surfaces in three-dimensional space and applications of these ideas to biology, chemistry, computer science, and engineering. Some of the papers are primarily theoretical; others are experimental. Some are purely mathematical; others deal with applications of mathematics to theoretical computer science, engineering, physics, biology, or chemistry. Connections are made between classical knot theory and the physical world of macromolecules, such as DNA, geometric linkages, rope, and even cooked spaghetti. This book introduces the world of physical knot theory in all its manifestations and points the way for new research. It is suitable for a diverse audience of mathematicians, computer scientists, engineers, biologists, chemists, and physicists.

Energy of Knots and Conformal Geometry

Energy of Knots and Conformal Geometry PDF Author: Jun O'Hara
Publisher: World Scientific
ISBN: 9812383166
Category : Mathematics
Languages : en
Pages : 288

Book Description
Energy of knots is a theory that was introduced to create a "canonical configuration" of a knot - a beautiful knot which represents its knot type. This book introduces several kinds of energies, and studies the problem of whether or not there is a "canonical configuration" of a knot in each knot type. It also considers this problem in the context of conformal geometry. The energies presented in the book are defined geometrically. They measure the complexity of embeddings and have applications to physical knotting and unknotting thorough numerical experiments.

Topological Polymer Chemistry

Topological Polymer Chemistry PDF Author:
Publisher: Springer Nature
ISBN: 9811668078
Category : Electronic books
Languages : en
Pages : 430

Book Description
This book provides a comprehensive description of topological polymers, an emerging research area in polymer science and polymer materials engineering. The precision polymer topology designing is critical to realizing the unique polymer properties and functions leading to their eventual applications. The prominent contributors are led by Principal Editor Yasuyuki Tezuka and Co-Editor Tetsuo Deguchi. Important ongoing achievements and anticipated breakthroughs in topological polymers are presented with an emphasis on the spectacular diversification of polymer constructions. The book serves readers collectively to acquire comprehensive insights over exciting innovations ongoing in topological polymer chemistry, encompassing topological geometry analysis, classification, physical characterization by simulation and the eventual chemical syntheses, with the supplementary focus on the polymer folding, invoked with the ongoing breakthrough of the precision AI prediction of protein folding. The current revolutionary developments in synthetic approaches specifically for single cyclic (ring) polymers and the topology-directed properties/functions uncovered thereby are outlined as a showcase example. This book is especially beneficial to academic personnel in universities and to researchers working in relevant institutions and companies. Although the level of the book is advanced, it can serve as a good reference book for graduate students and postdocs as a source of valuable knowledge of cutting-edge topics and progress in polymer chemistry.

Analysis of Quantised Vortex Tangle

Analysis of Quantised Vortex Tangle PDF Author: Alexander John Taylor
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319485563
Category : Science
Languages : en
Pages : 197

Book Description
In this thesis, the author develops numerical techniques for tracking and characterising the convoluted nodal lines in three-dimensional space, analysing their geometry on the small scale, as well as their global fractality and topological complexity---including knotting---on the large scale. The work is highly visual, and illustrated with many beautiful diagrams revealing this unanticipated aspect of the physics of waves. Linear superpositions of waves create interference patterns, which means in some places they strengthen one another, while in others they completely cancel each other out. This latter phenomenon occurs on 'vortex lines' in three dimensions. In general wave superpositions modelling e.g. chaotic cavity modes, these vortex lines form dense tangles that have never been visualised on the large scale before, and cannot be analysed mathematically by any known techniques.

New Scientific Applications of Geometry and Topology

New Scientific Applications of Geometry and Topology PDF Author: De Witt L. Sumners
Publisher: American Mathematical Soc.
ISBN: 9780821855027
Category : Mathematics
Languages : en
Pages : 250

Book Description
Geometry and topology are subjects generally considered to be ``pure'' mathematics. Recently, however, some of the methods and results in these two areas have found new utility in both wet-lab science (biology and chemistry) and theoretical physics. Conversely, science is influencing mathematics, from posing questions that call for the construction of mathematical models to exporting theoretical methods of attack on long-standing problems of mathematical interest. Based on an AMS Short Course held in January 1992, this book contains six introductory articles on these intriguing new connections. There are articles by a chemist and a biologist about mathematics, and four articles by mathematicians writing about science. All are expository and require no specific knowledge of the science and mathematics involved. Because this book communicates the excitement and utility of mathematics research at an elementary level, it is an excellent textbook in an advanced undergraduate mathematics course.

The Statistical Mechanics of Interacting Walks, Polygons, Animals and Vesicles

The Statistical Mechanics of Interacting Walks, Polygons, Animals and Vesicles PDF Author: E. J. Janse Van Rensburg
Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA
ISBN: 0199666571
Category : Mathematics
Languages : en
Pages : 640

Book Description
The self-avoiding walk is a classical model in statistical mechanics, probability theory and mathematical physics. It is also a simple model of polymer entropy which is useful in modelling phase behaviour in polymers. This monograph provides an authoritative examination of interacting self-avoiding walks, presenting aspects of the thermodynamic limit, phase behaviour, scaling and critical exponents for lattice polygons, lattice animals and surfaces. It also includes a comprehensive account of constructive methods in models of adsorbing, collapsing, and pulled walks, animals and networks, and for models of walks in confined geometries. Additional topics include scaling, knotting in lattice polygons, generating function methods for directed models of walks and polygons, and an introduction to the Edwards model. This essential second edition includes recent breakthroughs in the field, as well as maintaining the older but still relevant topics. New chapters include an expanded presentation of directed models, an exploration of methods and results for the hexagonal lattice, and a chapter devoted to the Monte Carlo methods.